Structure and Production Principle of X-rays

Features of X-rays

Technology content of X-ray

SEC Co., Ltd / SEC Europe Head Offcie / Automated X-ray Inspection / Nanotech Digital GmbH / Technology

Features of X-rays

X-ray was discovered by Röntgen in 1895 and is also called “Röntgen-ray.” X-rays are electromagnetic waves that are emitted by the energy of electrons rotating around a nucleus.
Because X-rays have long wavelengths and excellent permeability, they are is widely used for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis and fracture, checking gas and water pipes non-destructively, and checking defects in small and precision parts.

Production principle of X-rays

X-rays are generated by two processes: continuous X-rays from bremsstrahlung and characteristic X-rays from collision loss (excitation, ionization)

1. Continuous X-ray                                                                                                           (Continuous X-rays (bremsstrahlung: X-rays used by this system in inspection))

As the accelerated electron is decelerated by the Coulomb potential energy around a nucleus, the difference in energy is irradiated as electromagnetic waves. This phenomenon is referred to as bremsstrahlung and the emitted radiation is called as bremsstrahlung rays or continuous X-rays.

2. Characteristic X-rays

An accelerated charged particles interact with orbital electrons, causes excitation and ionization, brings about transition of the orbital electron, and emits the electromagnetic waves by the energy difference. The electromagnetic waves emitted at this time are characteristic X-rays and are unique depending on the target material.

X-rays are generated when the speed of the accelerated electron increases rapidly by the collision with an object.

The basic requirements of characteristic X-rays are as follows

  • First, electrons are generated.
  • Second, generated electrons are accelerated at a high speed.
  • Third, the accelerated electrons have targets to collide.

To emit X-rays, the X-ray source that generates electrons should exist. The generated electrons should be accelerated (because the energy of an electron is determined by the speed, this process requires high speed electrons. The energy level of a high-speed electron is high and the electrons with low speed has lower energy level. It requires high speed electrons.). When the accelerated electrons have no target, they cannot interact with the material for generating X-rays. As a result, X-rays are generated by interaction with the atoms of the target material from the collision of high speed electrons against the targets.

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